Ionic bond | example| formation| Characteristics.

Ionic Bond

Ionic bond:

 Ionic bond is also known as electrovalent bond. Ionic bond is the bond which is formed by the complete transfer of electron. It is the force of attraction between charged ions i.e positively charged cation and negatively charged anion.
Formation of bond: 
Ionic bond is formed when a metal having low ionization energy get reacted with the non metals having high electronegetivities


and high electron affinities. Due to low ionization energies of the metals they have tendency to lose an electron but the high electronegativitiy and high electron affinities non metals have ability to accept an electron. so in this way these both form ionic bond with each other.

Mechanism of reaction and bond formation:
Na is metal so oxidation takes place in it but Cl is non metal so reduction takes place on it. first of all when oxidation takes place Na metal it attains the electronic configuration of noble gases to become stable. It loses one electron and Cl accepts it to form ionic bond.
                                   Na            Na+  + e-
                                   Cl + e-            Cl-
Characteristics of Ionic compounds:
Following are the characteristics of ionic compounds:
  • Soluble in water, conduct electricity in molten state, have high M.P and B.P, Crystalline solids.

Ionic bond in NaCl

Electronic configurations in the ionic compound:
The example which is listed above is that in which the cation attains the noble gas configuration but few of the cations do not posses noble gas configuration. The cations which attain some specific type of the configuration is listed below:
  • Some elements has an outermost shell & 18 electrons which all are ionized and follow the configuration of (ns2 np6 nd10). This type of configuration is given by the cations of IB and IIB group. This type of configurations is called Pseudo inert gasinert gas configuration.
  • In inert gas configuration, ns2 np6 configuration is followed. in this type of configuration the nuclear charge is not strong sufficiently to keep the electron remain in their position. so these elements give d orbital electron easily. example: Fe2+, Co2.
Ionic Compound Example:
Lets see the structure of calcium fluoride (CaF). in this structure calcium make a bond by giving a complete electron to a flourine. calcium is a metal and is electropositive but fluorine is non metal and is electronegative so ave ability to withdraw an electron so in this regard by taking electron from the calcium both can form an ionic bond. Now this complete compound has same properties just like ionic compound’s properties.

Ionic bond

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