Welcome! If you’re seeking a concise and valuable resource to understand the periodic table, you’ve come to the right place.
The periodic table serves as a chart that organizes elements based on their symbols and atomic numbers. Symbols are abbreviated representations of elements, while atomic numbers indicate the number of protons in an element’s nucleus. These two components play a crucial role in studying and identifying elements.
By grasping the concept of symbols and atomic numbers, you’ll gain a deeper understanding of how elements are categorized and classified. This knowledge is essential for various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, physics, and biology.
So, if you’re ready to delve into the world of atomic numbers and symbols, let’s dive right in! You’ll soon discover how these fundamental aspects unlock fascinating insights into the building blocks of our universe.
Here you can find Periodic elements, with their properties. By the end of 18 century, only 28 elements are known. By 1870, 65 elements. By 1925, 88 elements. At present, 118 elements are known to us.
Do you know about Periodic Elements?
A table showing the systematic arrangement of elements is called the periodic table. Basically, it is based on the periodic law which states that the elements are arranged in order to increase their atomic numbers. The periodic table is one of the most important tools in chemistry. If you make our chemistry strong, it is very useful for understanding and predicting the properties of elements.
If you know the physical and chemical properties of any element in a group, you can also predict the physical and chemical properties of the other elements present in the same group. we can use the modern periodic table to predict the reactivity of elements with their atomic structures
Overview of the Periodic Table
The periodic table is a really important tool in chemistry. It helps scientists organize and understand all the different elements. It tells us about the building blocks of matter and how different substances will act. It’s a really cool table!
Rows and Columns: Periods and Groups:
At first glance, the periodic table may appear as a grid-like arrangement of elements. However, it is more than just an orderly arrangement; it holds crucial information about each element. The rows are called periods,
while the columns are referred to as groups or families.
Elements within the same group share similar chemical properties.
For example, Group 1 consists of alkali metals like sodium and potassium, which are highly reactive with water. In contrast, Group 18 comprises noble gases such as helium and neon that exhibit low reactivity due to their stable electron configurations.
On the other hand, elements within a period have increasing atomic numbers from left to right. This indicates a progressive addition of protons in the nucleus as one moves across the period. For instance, hydrogen has an atomic number of 1 since it contains only one proton in its nucleus. In contrast, helium has an atomic number of 2 because it possesses two protons..
All the elements in the periodic table are represented by symbols, which are abbreviations for the name of the element. A symbol of an element can be one letter or two letters.
It is the number of protons present in the nucleus of an atom. It is represented by the symbol ”Z”. Remember that all the atoms of an element have the same number of protons in their nucleus, they have the same atomic number. No atom has the same atomic number. You can also say the atomic number is the identification number of an atom. For example, all atoms in lithium have 3 protons. their atomic number is 6. Similarly, Sulphur has 16 protons so its atomic number is 16.
It is the number of protons and neutrons present in the nucleus of an atom. It is represented by the symbol ”A”. The formula to calculate the atomic mass is A = Z + n. Where n is the number of neutrons. In the whole periodic table, only a single atom of hydrogen has no neutrons. It has 1 proton and no neutron in its nucleus. Its atomic mass is A = 1 + 0 = 1. Nitrogen has 7 protons and 7 neutrons, hence its mass number is 14.
Insight into Elemental Characteristics
The periodic table offers valuable insights into various characteristics exhibited by each element:
Electron Configuration: The arrangement of electrons in an atom greatly influences its chemical behavior. Elements within the same group share similar electron configurations in their outermost energy levels (valence shells), leading to comparable chemical reactions.
Reactivity: The position of an element on the periodic table can provide clues about its reactivity. Alkali metals (Group 1) readily give up their valence electrons to form positive ions, while halogens (Group 17) tend to gain electrons to achieve a stable electron configuration.
Atomic Mass: The periodic table lists each element’s atomic mass, which is the total mass of protons and neutrons in its nucleus. This information helps scientists calculate the relative abundance of different isotopes for an element.
Chemical Properties: By examining an element’s position on the periodic table, one can predict its chemical properties. For example, metals are predominantly found on the left side of the table and tend to be good conductors of heat and electricity, while nonmetals are primarily located on the right side and often exhibit poor conductivity.
Exploring the Modern Periodic Table
The modern periodic table is a comprehensive framework that organizes all known elements based on their atomic numbers and chemical properties. It not only includes the 118 elements that have been discovered so far but also leaves room for future discoveries beyond this number. Let’s delve into the fascinating world of the periodic table and uncover its remarkable features.
Elements Beyond Atomic Number 118
The periodic table we are familiar with today goes beyond the element with atomic number 118, Oganesson. These additional elements, which have yet to be synthesized or discovered, hold immense potential for scientific exploration. Researchers continue to push the boundaries of chemistry in search of new elements that may further expand our understanding of matter and its behavior.
Classification into Blocks
Elements in the periodic table are grouped into four main blocks: s-block, p-block, d-block, and f-block. This classification is based on the electron configurations of these elements and helps us discern patterns in their chemical properties.
comprises two groups: Group 1 (alkali metals) and Group 2 (alkaline earth metals). These elements possess similar characteristics due to their valence electron configuration.
encompasses six groups from Group 13 to Group 18. Notable examples include oxygen (O), sulfur (S), and chlorine (Cl). Elements within this block exhibit diverse properties ranging from nonmetals to metalloids and noble gases.
incorporates transition metals such as iron (Fe), copper (Cu), and gold (Au). These elements often display multiple oxidation states due to their partially filled d-orbitals.
contains a series of inner transition metals called lanthanides and actinides. Prominent members include uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu).
Unraveling Chemical Properties
The periodic table’s organization also aids in understanding an element’s chemical properties. By examining an element’s position, we can deduce its reactivity, atomic size, electronegativity, and more.
Moving from left to right across a period, atomic size generally decreases while electronegativity increases.
Within a group or column, atomic size tends to increase as you move down the periodic table.
Transition metals exhibit variable oxidation states due to their partially filled d-orbitals.
How many protons and neutrons are there in an atom having A = 133 and Z = 55?
A = 133
Z = 55
Number of protons =?
Number of neutrons =?
Number of protons = Z = 55
Number of neutrons = A – Z
Number of neutrons = 133 – 55 = 78
Valency tells how maximum bonds are formed by an element. It is the combining capacity of an element with other elements. It is also defined as the number of electrons lost or gained by an atom to form a cation or anion respectively. Some elements like copper, Mercury, etc show more than one valency is called variable valency.
|Sr.No||Elements||Atomic symbols||Atomic numbers||Atomic masses||Valencies|
|5||Boron||B||5||10.81||3, 2, 1|
|6||Carbon||C||6||12.01||-1, -2, -4, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|7||Nitrogen||N||7||14.0067||0, -1, -2, -3, 0, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|8||Oxygen||O||8||16.00||-1, -2, 0, 2, 1|
|14||Silicon||Si||14||28.0855||-1, -2, -4, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|15||Phosphorous||P||15||30.9737||-1, -2, -3, 0, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|16||Silicon||S||16||32.066||-1, -2, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|17||Chlorine||Cl||17||35.4527||-1, -2, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|21||Scandium||Sc||21||44.9559||3, 2, 1|
|22||Titanium||Ti||22||47.867||-1, -2, 0, 4, 3, 2|
|23||Vanadium||V||23||50.9415||-1, -2, 0, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|24||Chromium||Cr||24||51.9961||-1, -2, -3, -4, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|25||Manganese||Mn||25||54.9380||-1, -2, -3, 0, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|26||Iron||Fe||26||55.845||-1, -2, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1,|
|27||Cobalt||Co||27||58.93320||-1, 0, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|28||Nickel||Ni||28||58.6934||-1, 0, 6, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|29||Copper||Cu||29||63.546||4, 3, 2, 1|
|30||Zinc||Zn||30||65.39||2, 1, 0|
|31||Gallium||Ga||31||69.723||3, 2, 1|
|32||Germanium||Ge||32||72.61||4, 3, 2, 1|
|33||Arsenic||As||33||74.92159||-3, 5, 3, 2|
|34||Selenium||Se||34||78.96||-2, 6, 4, 2, 1|
|35||Bromine||Br||35||79.904||-1, 0, 7, 5, 4, 3, 1|
|40||Zirconium||Zr||40||91.224||0, -2, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|41||Niobium||Nb||41||92.90638||-1, -3, 0, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|42||Molybdenum||Mo||42||95.94||-1, -2, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|43||Technetium||Tc||43||97.9072||-1, -3, 0, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|44||Ruthenium||Ru||44||101.07||-2, 0, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|45||Rhodium||Rh||45||102.95550||-1, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|46||Palladium||Pd||46||106.42||4, 2, 0|
|47||Silver||Ag||47||107.8682||3, 2, 1, 0|
|49||Indium||In||49||114.814||3, 2, 1|
|50||Tin||Sn||50||118.710||-4, 4, 2|
|51||Antimony||Sb||51||121.760||-3, 5, 3|
|52||Tellurium||Te||52||127.60||-2, 6, 5, 4, 2, 1|
|53||Iodine||I||53||126.9044||-1, 0, 7, 5, 3, 1|
|54||Xenon||Xe||54||131.29||8, 6, 4, 3, 2, 0|
|58||Cerium||Ce||58||140.115||4, 3, 2|
|59||Praseodymium||Pr||59||140.90765||4, 3, 2|
|60||Neodymium||Nd||60||144.24||4, 3, 2|
|64||Gadolinium||Gd||64||157.25||3, 2, 1|
|65||Terbium||Tb||65||158.92534||4, 3, 1|
|66||Dysprosium||Dy||66||162.50||4, 3, 2|
|72||Hafnium||Hf||72||178.59||4, 3, 2, 1|
|73||Tantalum||Ta||73||180.9479||-1, -3, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|74||Tangston||W||74||183.84||-1, -2, -4 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|75||Rhenium||Re||75||186.207||-1, -3, 0, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|76||Osmium||Os||76||190.23||-2, 0, 8, 7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|77||Iridium||Ir||77||192.217||-1, 0, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|78||Platinum||Pt||78||195.08||6, 5, 4, 2, 0|
|79||Gold||Au||79||196.96654||-1, 0, 7, 5, 3, 2, 1|
|83||Bismuth||Bi||83||208.98037||-3, 5, 3, 1|
|84||Polonium||Po||84||208.9824||-2, 6, 4, 2|
|85||Astatine||At||85||209.9871||-1, 7, 5, 3, 1|
|90||Thorium||Ih||90||232.0388||4, 3, 2|
|91||Protactinium||Pa||91||231.0388||5, 4, 3|
|92||Uranium||U||92||238.0299||6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|93||Neptunium||Np||93||237.0482||7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2|
|94||Plutonium||Pu||94||244.0642||7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2|
|95||Americium||Am||95||243.0614||7, 6, 5, 4, 3, 2|
|96||Curium||Cm||96||247.07||6, 5, 4, 3, 2|
|97||Berkelium||Bk||97||247||4, 3, 2|
|98||Californium||Cf||98||251.08||5, 4, 3, 2|
|99||Einsteinium||Ps||99||252||4, 3, 2|
|100||Fermium||Fm||100||257.10||4, 3, 2|
|101||Mendelevium||Md||101||258.10||3, 2, 1|
|106||Seoborgium||Sg||106||266||6, 5, 4|
|107||Bohrium||Bh||107||264||7, 6, 5, 3|
|108||Hassium||Hs||108||277||8, 7, 4, 3, 2|
|109||Meitnerium||Mt||109||268||6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|110||Dormstadtium||Ds||110||271||6, 5, 4, 3, 2, 1|
|118||Oganesson||Og||118||294||8, 6, 4, 2|
Frequently Asked Questions
Why is the periodic table important?
The periodic table is important because it can be utilized to determine the properties of elements, even those that have not yet been found. Columns and rows demonstrate elements that share similar properties. Chemical equations are also balanced by the periodic table element properties are evident and straightforward by making trends via the periodic table.
How do you explain the periodic element?
The 118 known elements are arranged in a systematic order in the modern periodic table. These elements are organized in order of increasing atomic number, or the number of protons in an atom’s nucleus, which typically corresponds with increasing atomic mass, from left to right and top to bottom. The periodic table’s horizontal rows are known as periods, and each period number represents the number of orbitals that each element in that row has.
For example, elements in the first period have one atomic orbital where electrons spin; those in period 2 have two; those in period 3 have three; and so on and so forth until period 7. The atomic elements that have the same number of valence electrons, or electrons in the outermost orbital shell, are represented by the columns, or groups, on the periodic table.
What are the atomic number and atomic mass?
The atomic number is defined as the total number of protons in the nucleus of an atom that is the atomic number. It is symbolized by Z.
The sum of neutrons and protons is equal to the mass number of an atom.
For example, the carbon atom has 6 protons and 6 neutrons so its mass number is 12 and its atomic number is 6. Always keep in mind number of protons same and the number of neutrons can change in the atoms of an element.
What is valency with example?
Valency is the measure of how many electrons an atom gains or loses to complete its outermost shell. By completing their outermost shell, or octet, the atoms become stable (8 electrons in the outmost shell).
Electronic configuration 2, and 6 is present in the oxygen. This means that it has 6 electrons in its outermost orbit or shell. In order to complete the octet, it will therefore require two extra electrons. So its valency is two.
How do you find valency?
- Eight electrons can fit inside a valence shell at most.
- As a result, a valence shell’s electron count might range from 1 to 8.
- Now imagine that an atom contains 1, 2, or 3 valence electrons.
- It is simpler for them to lose 1, 2, and 3 electrons from the valence to complete an octet, respectively.
- Valency of atom losing 1 electron = 1
- Valency of atom losing 2 electrons = 2
- Valency of an atom losing 3 electrons = 3
What is meant by oxidation state?
The total amount of electrons that a specific atom in a chemical reaction can accept, give, or share with any other atom is known as its oxidation state. The oxidation state not only represents anything numerically but also shows whether an atom is negatively or positively charged.
How do you find the oxidation state?
The following guidelines can be used to assign an oxidation state to a specific element or molecule.
- Any element that is in a free state has a zero oxidation number.
- For monoatomic ions, the oxidation number is always equal to the ion’s corresponding net charge.
- The oxidation state of the hydrogen atom (H) is 1. However, it displays an oxidation number of -1 when coupled with an element that has a lower electronegativity than it.
- Most of the substances that oxygen is found in have an oxidation of -2. But the oxidation number of oxygen in peroxide is -1.
- The oxidation state of all alkali metals (group 1 elements) in their compounds is one.
- An oxidation state is two present in all group 2 elements known as alkaline earth metals.
- Halogens (group 17 elements) are given an oxidation number of -1 in compounds composed of two elements.
- For neutral compounds, the total oxidation number of the atoms that make up the chemical is zero.
- When polyatomic ions, their net charge is equal to the total oxidation numbers of the atoms that make them up.